In Kerala, native habitat consists of wet evergreen rainforests at lower elevations and highland deciduous and semi-evergreen forests in the east, is with a humid tropical climate. Significant variations in terrain and elevation have resulted in a land whose biodiversity registers as among the world’s most significant. Most of Kerala's significantly biodiverse tracts of wilderness lie in the evergreen forests of its easternmost districts. Kerala contains 9,400 km² of natural forests.

The forests play host to such major fauna as Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), Leopard (Panthera pardus), and Nilgiri Tahr (Nilgiritragus hylocrius), and Grizzled Giant Squirrel (Ratufa macroura). More remote preserves, including Silent Valley National Park in the Kundali Hills, harbor endangered species such as Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus), Indian Sloth Bear (Melursus (Ursus) ursinus ursinus), and Gaur (the so-called "Indian Bison" — Bos gaurus). More common species include Indian Porcupine (Hystrix indica), Chital (Axis axis), Sambar (Cervus unicolor), Gray Langur, Flying Squirrel, Swamp Lynx (Felis chaus kutas), Boar (Sus scrofa), a variety of catarrhine Old World monkey species, Gray Wolf (Canis lupus), Common Palm Civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus).

Many reptiles, such as king cobra, viper, python, various turtles and crocodiles are to be found in Kerala — again, disproportionately in the east. Kerala has about 453 species of birds such as the Sri Lanka Frogmouth (Batrachostomus moniliger), Oriental Bay Owl, large frugivores like the Great Hornbill(Buceros bicornis) and Indian Grey Hornbill, as well as the more widespread birds such as Peafowl, Indian Cormorant, Jungle and Hill Myna, Oriental Darter, Black-hooded Oriole, Greater Racket-tailed and Black Drongoes, bulbul (Pycnonotidae), species of Kingfisher and Woodpecker, Jungle Fowl,Alexandrine Parakeet, and assorted ducks and migratory birds. Additionally, freshwater fish such as kadu (stinging catfish — Heteropneustes fossilis) and brackishwater species such as Choottachi (orange chromide — Etroplus maculatus; valued as an aquarium specimen) also are native to Kerala's lakes and waterways

National Parks in Kerala

Eravikulam National Park
Periyar National Park
Silent Valley National Park
Anamudi Shola National Park
Mathikettan Shola National Park
Pambadum Shola National Park

Biosphere Reserves in Kerala

Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve
Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve

Wildlife Sanctuaries in Kerala

Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary
Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary
Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary
Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary
Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary
Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary
Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary
Chimmony Wildlife sanctuary
Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary
Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary
Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary
Kurinjimala Sanctuary
Culannur Wildlife Sanctuary
Malabar Wildlife Sanctuary

Tiger Reserves in Kerala

Periyar Tiger Reserve
Parambikulam Tiger Reserve

Bird Sancturies in Kerala

Thattekad Bird Sanctuary
Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary
Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary


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